Sunday, August 23, 2009


The Monkey and the Turtle

One day a Monkey met a Turtle on the road, and asked, "Where are you going?"
"I am going to find something to eat, for I have had no food for three whole days," said the Turtle.
"I too am hungry," said the Monkey; "and since we are both hungry, let us go together and hunt food for our stomachs' sake."

They soon became good friends and chatted along the way, so that the time passed quickly. Before they had gone far, the Monkey saw a large bunch of yellow bananas on a tree at a distance.

"Oh, what a good sight that is!" cried he. "Don't you see the bananas hanging on that banana-tree?”, pointing with his first finger toward the tree. They are fine! I can taste them already."
But the Turtle was short-sighted and could not see them. By and by they came near the tree, and then he saw them. The two friends were very glad. The mere sight of the ripe, yellow fruit seemed to assuage their hunger.

But the Turtle could not climb the tree, so he agreed that the Monkey should go up alone and should throw some of the fruit down to him. The Monkey was up in a flash; and, seating himself comfortably, he began to eat the finest of the fruit, and forgot to drop any down to the Turtle waiting below. The Turtle called for some, but the Monkey pretended not to hear. He ate even the peelings, and refused to drop a bit to his friend, who was patiently begging under the tree.

At last the Turtle became angry, very angry indeed: "so he thought he would revenge" (as my informant puts it). While the Monkey was having a good time, and filling his stomach, the Turtle gathered sharp, broken pieces of glass, and stuck them, one by one, all around
the banana-tree. Then he hid himself under a cocoanut-shell not far away. This shell had a hole in the top to allow the air to enter. That was why the Turtle chose it for his hiding-place.

The Monkey could not eat all the bananas, for there were enough to last a good-sized family several days; "but he ate all what he can," and by and by came down the tree with great difficulty, for the glass was so sharp that it cut even the tough hand of the Monkey. He had a hard time, and his hands were cut in many places. The Turtle thought he had his revenge, and was not so angry as before.

But the Monkey was now very angry at the trick that had been played upon him, and began looking for the Turtle, intending to kill him. For some time he could not find his foe, and, being very tired, he sat down on the cocoanut-shell near by. His weariness increased his anger at the Turtle very much.

He sat on the shell for a long time, suffering from his wounds, and wondering where to find the Turtle,--his former friend, but now his enemy. Because of the disturbance of the shell, the Turtle inside could not help making a noise. This the Monkey heard; and he was surprised, for he could not determine whence the sound came. At last he lifted his stool, and there found his foe the Turtle.

"Ha! Here you are!" he cried. "Pray now, for it is the end of your life."

He picked up the Turtle by the neck and carried him near the riverbank,where he meant to kill him. He took a mortar and pestle, and built a big fire, intending to pound him to powder or burn him to death. When everything was ready, he told the Turtle to choose whether he should die in the fire or be "grounded" in the mortar. The Turtle begged for his life; but when he found it was in vain, he prayed to be thrown into the fire or ground in the mortar,--anything except be thrown into the water. On hearing this, the Monkey picked the Turtle up in his bleeding fingers, and with all his might threw him into the middle of the stream.

Then the Turtle was very glad. He chuckled at his own wit, and laughed at the foolishness of the Monkey. He came up to the surface of the water and mocked at the Monkey, saying, "This is my home. The water is my home."

This made the Monkey so angry that he lost his self-possession entirely. He jumped into the middle of the river after the Turtle, and was drowned.

Since that day monkeys and turtles have been bitter enemies.

How the Farmer Deceived the Demon

Very many years ago, in a far-away land where the trees never changed their green leaves and where the birds always sang, there lived on an island a farmer with a large family. Though all alone on the island and knowing nothing of people in the outer world, they were
always happy,--as happy as the laughing rills that rippled past their home. They had no great wealth, depending from year to year on the crops which the father raised. They needed no money, for they lacked nothing; and they never sold their produce, for no people were near to buy.

One day in the middle of the year, after the crops were well started, a loud, unusual roar was heard. Suddenly a stiff gale blew up from the southwest, and with it came clouds which quickly hid the entire sky. The day turned to night. The birds ceased to sing and went to
their nests. The wild beasts ran to their caves. The family sought shelter in the house from a heavy downpour of rain which continued for many days and nights. So long did it last that they became very anxious about the condition of things around them.

On the eighth day the birds again began to sing, and the sun was, as usual, bright. The farmer arose early and went out to look at his fields, but, lo! his crop was all destroyed. He went back to the house and told the family that the water-god was angry and had washed away that entire he had hoped to have for the coming year.

What were they to do? The supply in the house was getting low and it was too late to raise another crop. The father worried night and day, for he did not know how he could keep his children from starvation.

One day he made a long journey and came into a place that was strange to him. He had never before seen the like of it. But in the midst of a broad meadow he saw a tree with spreading branches like an elm, and as his legs and back were stiff from walking, he went over and sat down under it. Presently, looking up, he discovered that on the tree were large red fruits. He climbed up and brought some down, and after satisfying his hunger he fell asleep.

He had not slept long when he was awakened by a loud noise. The owner of the place was coming. He was fearful to look upon. His body was like that of a person, but he was of enormous size; and he had a long tail, and two horns growing out of his head. The farmer was frightened and did not know what to do. He stood motionless till the master came up and began to talk to him. Then he explained that he had come there in search of food to keep his family alive. The monster was delighted to hear this, for he saw that he had the man and the man's family in his power. He told the traveller that in return for a certain promise he would help him out of his troubles.

The demon, as he was called by some travellers to that land, showed the farmer a smooth, round stone, which, he said, gave its possessor the power of a magician. He offered to lend this to the farmer for five years, if at the expiration of that time the farmer and family would become his slaves. The farmer consented.

Then the demon was glad. He said to the farmer, "You must squeeze the stone when you wish to become invisible; and must put it in your mouth when you wish to return to human form."

The man tried the power of the magic stone. He squeezed it, and instantly became invisible to the demon; but he bade him farewell, and promised to meet him in the same place at the appointed time.

In this invisible form the man crossed the water that washed the shore of the island on which he lived. There he found a people who lived in communities. He wanted something to eat, so he went into the shops; but he found that a restaurant owned by a Chinaman was the one to which most people of the city went. He put the stone in his mouth, thus appearing in visible form, and, entering the restaurant, ordered the best food he could find. He finished his meal quickly and went out. The waiter, perceiving that he did not pay, followed him. The man had no money; so he squeezed the stone and shot up into the air without being seen. The Chinaman, alarmed by the cry of the waiter, came out and ran in all directions, trying to find and catch the man. No one could find him; and the people thought he must indeed be a fast runner to escape so quickly, for they did not know of the gift of the demon.

Not far from that place he saw groups of men and women going in and out of a large building. It was a bank. The farmer went in to see what he could find. There he saw bags of money, gold and silver. He chuckled with joy at this opportunity. In order to use his hands freely, he put the stone in his mouth; but before he could fill all his pockets with money, he was discovered by the two guards, who began to pound him on the head. He struggled to save his life, and finally took the stone out of his mouth and squeezed it. Instantly he vanished from their sight; but he was vexed at the beating he had received, so he carried off all the gold they had in the bank. The people inside as well as outside the building became crazy. They ran about in all directions, not knowing why. Some called the firemen, thinking the bank was on fire; but nothing had happened, except that the farmer was gone and the two guards were "half dead frightened." They danced up and down the streets in great excitement, but could not utter a word.

Straight home went the farmer, not stopping by the way. His wife and children were awaiting him. He gave them the money, and told them all about the fortune which he had gotten from the man on their own island,--told all his secrets. Prosperous they became, and with the money which he had brought they purchased all they needed from the city just opposite them.

The time passed so pleasantly that the man was surprised to discover that his promise would be due in two more days. He made preparations to go back to the land of his master.

Arrived there, he met the same monster under the same tree. The demon was displeased to see the old man alone, without the family which also had been promised. He told the man that he would shut him in a cave and then would go and capture those left at home.

But the farmer would not go to the cave. The demon tried to pull him into a deep hole. Both struggled; and at last the farmer squeezed the magic stone and disappeared. He took a green branch of the tree and beat the demon. The demon surrendered. He begged for mercy.

The farmer went home, and from that day thought no more of the demon. He knew that while he held the stone the monster would never come to trouble him. And the family lived on in peace and happiness, as they had done before the water-god became angry with them.



Adventures of Datu Paubari and his Sons

When the goddess of the eastern sky Alunsina (also known as Laun Sina, "The Unmarried One") reached maidenhood, the king of the gods, Kaptan, decreed that she should marry. All the unmarried gods of the different domains of the universe tried their luck to win her hand to no avail. She chose to marry a mortal, Datu Paubari, the mighty ruler of Halawod.

Her decision angered her other suitors. They plotted to bring harm to the newlyweds. A meeting of the council of gods was called by Maklium-sa-t'wan, god of the plains, where a decision by those present was made to destroy Halawod by flood.

Alunsina and Paubari escaped harm through the assistance of Suklang Malayon, the goddess and guardian of happy homes and sister of Alunsina, who learned of the evil plot and warned the two so they were able to seek refuge on higher ground.

After the flood waters subsided, Paubari and Alunsina returned to the plains secretly. They settled near the mouth of the Halawod River.

Several months later Alunsina became pregnant and told Paubari to prepare the siklot, things necessary for childbirth. She delivered a set of triplets and summoned the high priest Bungot-Banwa to perform the rites of the gods of Mount Madya-as (the mountain abode of the gods)to ensure the good health of the children. The high priest promptly made an altar and burned some alanghiran fronds and a pinch of kamangyan. When the ceremony was over he opened the windows of the north side of the room and a cold northernly wind came in and suddenly the three infants were transformed into strong, handsome young men

Labaw Donggon, the eldest of the three, asked his mother to prepare his magic cape, hat, belt and kampilan (sword) for he heard of a place called Handug where a beautiful maiden named Angoy Ginbitinan lived.

The journey took several days. He walked across plains and valleys, climbed up mountains until he reached the mouth of the Halawod river. When he finally met the maiden's father and asked for her hand in marriage, the father asked him to fight the monster Manalintad as part of his dowry. He went off to confront the monster and with the help of his magic belt Labaw Donggon killed the monster and to prove his feat he brought to Angoy Ginbitinan's father the monster's tail.

After the wedding Labaw Donggon proceeded home with his new bride. Along the way they met a group of young men who told him that they were on their way to Tarambang Burok to win the hand of Abyang Durunuun, sister of Sumpoy the lord of the underworld and whose beauty was legendary.

Labaw Donggon and his bride continued on their journey home. The moment they arrived home Labaw Donggon told his mother to take care of his wife because he is taking another quest, this time he was going to Tarambang Burok.

Before he can get to the place he has to pass a ridge guarded by a giant named Sikay Padalogdog who has a hundred arms. The giant would not allow Labaw Donggon to go through without a fight. However, Sikay Padalogdog was no match to Labaw Donggon's prowess and skill in fighting so he gave up and allowed him to continue.

Labaw Donggon won the hand of Abyang Durunuun and also took her home. Before long he went on another journey, this time it is to Gadlum to ask for the hand of Malitong Yawa Sinagmaling Diwata who is the young bride of Saragnayan the lord of darkness.

This trip required him to use his biday nga inagta (black boat) on which he sailed across the seas for many months, went across the region of the clouds, passed the land of stones until finally he reached the shores of Tulogmatian which was the seaside fortress of Saragnayan. The moment he set foot on the ground Saragnayan asked him, "Who are you and why are you here?" To which he answered, "I am Labaw Donggon, son of Datu Paubari and goddess Alunsina of Halawod. I came for the beautiful Malitong Yawa Sinagmaling Diwata."

Saragnayan laughed. He told Labaw Donggon that what he wished for was impossible to grant because she was his wife. Labaw Donggon then challenged Saragnayan to a duel saying that whoever wins will have her.

The challenge was accepted and they started fighting. Labaw Donggon submerged Saragnayan under water for seven years, but when he let go of him, Saragnayan was still alive. The latter uprooted a coconut tree and started beating Labaw Donggon with it. He survived the beating but was not able to surpass the powers of Saragnayan's pamlang (amulet) and eventually he gave up and was imprisoned by Saragnayan beneath his house.

Back home Angoy Ginbitinan and Abyang Durunuun both delivered sons. Angoy Ginbitinan's child was named Aso Mangga and Abyang Durunuun's son was called Abyang Baranugon.


When a simple merchant, his young son and mute servant are out in the woods, they chance upon a drifting boat, in which there is a baby girl and a bowl containing a live goldfish. The merchant realises that the baby is unusual because her life is bonded to the fish: if the fish leaves the water, she stops breathing. The merchant adopts the baby as her own and names her Bidasari. Years later Bidasari grows up into a beautiful young woman while the merchant has prospered into a wealthy businessman. At the royal palace of this kingdom, the King has just remarried a beautiful woman, the Permaisuri (Queen). The Permaisuri is a proud woman who secretly practises witchcraft. Hidden in her chambers is a magic mirror that can show her anything she asks. She uses it to ask who the most beautiful in all the land is. One day when she asks the mirrorthis question, the image of Bidasari appears in it. She is enraged by this and carries out a search to find who Bidasari is. Her search leads her to the merchant's house. Under the guise of kindness, the Permaisuri asks the merchant for permission to bring Bidasari to the palace to be her companion. Although the merchant is reluctant to part with his beloved daughter, he lets her go. But once Bidasari arrives at the palace, she is sent to the kitchens as a servant, where she is starved and given the dirtiest jobs. After the Permaisuri is satisfied that Bidasari has been ruined, she once again asks her magic mirror who is the most beautiful in the land. When the mirrorshows Bidasari yet again, the Permaisuri flies into a rage and runs to the kitchen where she grabs burning pieces of firewood which she tries to burn Bidasari's face with. She is shocked when the fire goes out and Bidasari's face is left untouched. Bidasari, who has by now realised that the Permaisuri's malice is targeted only at her and will never stop, begs for mercy and explains her life is bonded to that of a fish that is kept in a bowl in her father's garden. The Permaisuri has a servant steal the fish for her from the merchant's garden, and as soon as the fish leaves the water, Bidasari collapses and stops breathing. Satisfied that Bidasari's life is in her hands, the Permaisuri hangs the fish around her neck as a trophy. When she asks the mirror who is the most beautiful in the land, the mirror shows her own image. The merchant realises that the fish is missing, and is told that Bidasari died mysteriously at the palace. Her body is returned to him and he builds a small tomb for her in the woodswhere her body is laid out in peace. Meanwhile, the Permaisuri's stepson the Prince has been having dreams about Bidasari, although he has never met her. The dreams plague him even in his waking hours, despite his father's advice that such a beautiful woman cannot exist. The Permaisuri sees her stepson acting this way and plants a painting of Bidasari in his room. The Prince finds the painting, which leads him to the merchant who explains the sad tale of Bidasari's death and the mysterious disappearance of the fish. The Prince decides to visit Bidasari's tomb to see her beauty with his own eyes. Coincidentally at this time, back at the palace the Permaisuri is having a bath in the royal bathing pool.

The fish manages to break free of its locket and drops into the water where it starts swimming. This causes Bidasari to wake up right before the Prince's eyes. Bidasari tells him of what the Permaisuri did to her, which confirms the Prince's suspicions of his stepmother. When the Permaisuri finishes her bath, she discovers that the fishhas gotten free. She manages to catch it just as the Prince is about to help Bidasari leave the tomb, causing her to fall unconscious again. The Prince places Bidasari back in the tomb and promises to make things right. The Prince returns to the palace in a fury, demanding that the Permaisuri give him the fish. The Permaisuri pretends not to know anything, and when the King listens to the Prince's explanation, the King declares that his son has gone insane and calls the royal guards. A fight ensues, during which the Permaisuri is injured and dies. Just before the Prince is about to be captured, the merchant and the Prince's loyal manservants arrive with Bidasari on a stretcher. The merchant explains that the story about the fish being bonded to Bidasari's life is true. The Prince takes the fish from the locket around the Permaisuri's neck and puts it into a bowl of water. As soon as the fish enters the water, Bidasari comes back to life. The King apologises to his son, and the Prince and Bidasari are married.

Cosmogony (Bagobo)

Cosmogony (Bagobo)

In the beginning, Diwata made the sea and the land, and planted trees of many kinds. Then he took two lumps of earth, and shaped them like human figures; then he spit on them, and they became man and woman. The old man was called Tuglay, and the old woman, Tuglibung. The two were married, and lived together. The Tuglay made a great house, and planted seeds of

different kinds that Diwata gave him.

Diwata made the sun, the moon, the stars, and the rivers. First he made the great eel (kasili), a fish that is like a snake in the river, and wound it all around the world. Diwata then made the great crab (kayumang), and put it near the great eel, and let it go wherever it liked. Now, when the great crab bites the great eel, the eel wriggles, and this produces an earthquake.

When the rain falls, it is Diwata throwing out water from the sky. When Diwata spits, the showers fall. The sun makes yellow clouds, and the yellow clouds make the colors of the rainbow. But the white clouds are smoke from the fire of the gods.

In the Days of the Mona

Long ago the sun hung low over the earth. And the old woman called Mona said to the sky, "You go up high, because I cannot pound my rice when you are in the way."

Then the sky moved up higher.

Mona was the first woman, and Tuglay was the first man. There were at that time only one man and one woman on the earth. Their eldest son was named Malaki; their eldest daughter, Bia. They lived at the centre of the earth.

Tuglay and Mona made all the things in the world; but the god made the woman and the man. Mona was also called Tuglibung. Tuglay and Tuglibung got rich, because they could see the god.

But the snake was there too, and he gave the fruit to the man and the woman, saying to them, "If you eat the fruit, it will open your eyes."

Then they both ate the fruit. This made the god angry.

After this, Tuglibung and Tuglay could not see the god any more.

Why the Sky Went Up

In the beginning, when the world was made, the sky lay low down over the earth. At this time the poor families called "Mona" were living in the world. The sky hung so low, that, when they wanted to pound their rice, they had to kneel down on the ground to get a play for the arm. Then the poor woman called Tuglibung said to the sky, "Go up higher! Don't you see that I cannot pound my rice well?"

So the sky began to move upwards. When it had gone up about five fathoms, the woman said again, "Go up still more!"

This made the sun angry at the woman, and he rushed up very high. In the old days, when the sun as well as the sky was low down, the Mona had a deep hole in the ground, as large as a house, into which they would creep to keep themselves from the fierce heat of the sun.

The Mona were all very old; but after the sun went up very high, they began to get babies.

The Sun and the Moon

Long ago the Sun had to leave the Moon to go to another town. He knew that his wife, the Moon, was expecting the birth of a child; and, before going away, he said to her, "When your baby is born, if it is a boy, keep it; if a girl, kill it."

A long time passed before the Sun could come back to the Moon, and while he was gone, the Moon gave birth to her baby. It was a girl. A beautiful child it was, with curly hair like binubbud, with burnished nails that looked like gold, and having the white spots called pamoti on its body. The mother felt very sad to think of killing it, and so she hid it in the big box (kaban) where they kept their clothes.

As soon as the Sun returned, he asked the Moon, "How about our baby?"

At once the Moon replied, "It was a girl: I killed it yesterday." The Sun had only a week to stay at home with the Moon. One night he dreamed that a boy with white hair came to him from heaven. The boy stood close to him, and spoke these words:--

"Your wife got a baby, but it was a girl; and she hid it away from you in the box."

When the Sun wakened from sleep, he was very angry at the Moon, and the two fell to quarrelling about the baby. The Moon wanted the child saved.

"You ought to keep it with you," she urged.

"No, no!" protested the Sun. "I cannot keep it, because my body is so hot it would make your baby sick."

"And I cannot keep it," complained the Moon, "for my body is very dark; and that would surely make the child sick."

Then the Sun fell into a passion of rage; and he seized his big kampilan, and slew the child. He cut its small body into numberless little bits,--as many as the grains of sand that lie along the seashore. Out of the window he tossed the pieces of the shining little body; and, as the gleaming fragments sparkled to their places in the sky, the stars came to birth.

Origin of the Stars

All the old Bagobo men say that the Sun and the Moon once had a quarrel about the Moon's baby.

The Moon had a baby in her belly; and the Sun said, "If our baby is a girl, we will kill it, because a girl could not be like me."

Then the Sun went on a journey to another town, and while he was gone, the baby was born; but it was a girl. Now, the Moon felt very sorry to think of her little child being killed, and she hid it in a box. In a few days, the Sun came home to rest with his wife. Then he asked her for the baby.

The Moon answered, "I killed it yesterday: it was a girl."

But the Sun did not believe what his wife said. Then he opened the box to get his clothes, and there he saw a baby-girl. And the Sun was very angry. He seized the baby and cut it into many pieces, and threw the pieces out of the window. Then the pieces of the baby's body became the stars.

Before the Sun and the Moon had their quarrel, they journeyed together through the sky, and the sky was not far above the earth, as now, but it lay low down.

The Fate of the Moon's Baby

The Sun wanted the Moon to have a boy-baby so that it would be like its father. The Moon too hoped to give birth to a boy. But when the child was born, it was a girl. Now, at that time, the Moon was very hungry, and wanted to eat her own baby. Then the Sun killed the girl-child, and ate it up himself.

The Black Men at the Door of the Sun

The men who live in that part of the world near to where the sun rises are very black. They are called Manobo tagselata k'alo. From sunrise until noon, they stay in a hole in the ground to escape the fierce heat of the sun. Just before sunrise, they put their rice in the big pot, with water, and leave it without any fire under the pot. Then they creep into their hole in the ground. The rising sun cooks the rice; and, when the black men come out of the hole at noon, their meal is all ready for them. From noon until sunset, and then all night, the black men play and work. But before the sun rises, they fix their rice in the pot, leave it for the sun to cook, and go down again into the big hole.

Story of the Eclipse

Before time began, very long ago, a great bird called "minokawa" swallowed the moon. Seized with fear, all the people began to scream and make a great noise. Then the bird peeped down to see what was the matter, and he opened his mouth. But as soon as he opened his mouth, the moon sprang out and ran away.

The minokawa-bird is as large as the Island of Negros or Bohol. He has a beak of steel, and his claws too are of steel. His eyes are mirrors, and each single feather is a sharp sword. He lives outside the sky, at the eastern horizon, ready to seize the moon when she reaches there from her journey under the earth.

The moon makes eight holes in the eastern horizon to come out of, and eight holes in the western horizon to go into, because every day the big bird tries to catch her, and she is afraid. The exact moment he tries to swallow her is just when she is about to come in through one of the holes in the east to shine on us again. If the minokawa should swallow the moon, and swallow the sun too, he would then come down to earth and gulp down men also. But when the moon is in the belly of the big bird, and the sky is dark, then all the Bagobo scream and cry, and beat agongs, because they fear they will all "get dead." Soon this racket makes the minokawa-bird look down and "open his mouth to hear the sound." Then the moon jumps out of the bird's mouth and runs away.

The Creation of the World

The Creation of the World

as Told by the Mangians and the Negritos

Away back in the long ago the earth did not exist, and there was only a vast immense sea formed by a huge ocean.

Once after the end of the long and painful imprisonment of King Manaul by his opponent King Tubluck Lawi after a bloody war which they fought with the result of the rout of King Manaul, and after Manaul had broken the enormous chain with which he was fastened, he went out flying into space with the intention of avenging himself on his most fierce and feared enemy, Tubluck Lawi.

Many years passed during which King Manaul wandered through the air, flying hither and thither without finding any place where he could alight and rest from his long and tiresome journey. He declared himself the enemy of the earth and of the sky. These, in fury at such boldness, tried to punish King Manaul. The liquid element sent out waves which raised themselves in anger, like tremendous peaks, scattering foam and minute particles of water into space. The sky, in its turn, called to its assistance Canauay and Aminhan, the gods who rule the air, to send out furious winds. The sky discharged a torrential rain. They tried to punish him, but King Manaul, light and agile, with his powerful wings, always escaped and mocked at the infuriated elements, withdrawing lightly from their colossal discharges.

Days and months went by, and then years. But no one yielded a bit in his boasting. At last both grew weary, and having resolved to conclude their long and quarrelsome rivalry, begged to know each other's desires.

King Manaul begged that he be given light, and instantly there appeared revolving about him an immense number of little lights produced by a multitude of fireflies. Further, he desired counselors, and in a trice he had every kind of bird at his side.

Seeing some exceedingly fine chicks, he could not restrain his gluttony, and in one bound ate up all that were there. Since there were no other chicks on which to satiate his appetite, he began successively to devour and eat, first among the smaller birds, and ending with the largest ones.

His other bird counselors, on the other hand, began to devour his small fireflies, until not the least sign of them appeared.

Angered by so gross an insult, he called his owls, which by chance were passing that place, and swore to them that they should be punished for such a villainy. So he obliged them to stay awake during the night, and gave them double-sized eyes, so that in the future they might see better and not eat his beloved fireflies. From that time, and the desires of King Manaul having been fulfilled, we see owls with their big eyes that are wakeful during night, suffering still the punishment of King Manaul.

Enter the king of the air, many of whose counselors Manaul had devoured. His wrath was boundless. He stamped his feet, and vomitted up terrible lightnings, thunderbolts, and whirlwinds. He sought aid from King Cantan of the Higuecinas, or the genius of the men of the sea, in order to punish the boldness of Manaul. He (Captan) sent from the sky huge rocks and stones to crush Manaul, but this had no result, for it was avoided by King Manaul.

Here the earth found its beginning, for then Manaul, findling a support in those big stones made them remain fixed forever. They having become his dwelling, King Manaul lived happily forever. Those lands had their beginning from that time and are still here today. Thanks to the rage of Captan against Manaul, the world had its beginning.

The Creation of the World (Bikol)

Thousands and thousands of years ago, there was a time when the space occupied by the universe was vacant. The moon, the sun, the stars, and the earth were conspicuous by their absence. Only the vast expanse of water and the sky above it could be seen. The kingdom of the sky was under the rule of the great god Languit while the water was under the sovereignty of the god Tubigan.

Languit had a daughter called Dagat, the Sea, who became the wife of Paros, the wind, who was the son of Tubigan.

Four children were born to Dagat and Paros, three of whom were boys called Daga, Aldao, and Bulan, and one girl named Bitoon.

Daga, a strong man, possessed a body of rock; Aldao, a jolly fellow, had a body of gold; Bulan, a copper-made man, was a weakling; while the beautiful Bitoon was made of pure silver.

After the death of the father Paros, Daga being the eldest son, succeeded in the control of the winds. Soon after, Dagat, the mother died,leaving her children under the care of the grandparents Languit and Tubigan.

After assuming the control of the winds, Daga became arrogant and ambitious, desiring to gain more power, so he induced his younger brothers to attack the kingdom of Languit. At first, thsy refused; at Daga's anger, Bulan and Aldao were constrained to join Daga in his plot.

Preparations were made and when everything was ready they set out on their expedition and began to attack the gates of the sky. Failure to open the gates, Daga let loose the winds in all directions so that the gate was destroyed and the brothers succeeded in gaining an entrance. But they were met by the enraged god Languit who sent out three bolts of lightning after them. All of them were struck by lightning. The copper body of Bulan melted into a ball so also with the golden body of Aldao. Daga's body fell into the sea and became what is now the earth.

Their sister Bitoon, on discovering the absence of her brothers went out to Seek for them. But upon meeting the enraged god Languit, Bitoon was struck also by another bolt of lightning which broke her body into many pieces.

Then Languit descended from the sky and called Tubigan and accused him of helping their grandsons in their attack on his kingdom. But Tubigan defended himself saying he has no knowledge about the attack for he was asleep far down into the sea. Tubigan succeeded in pacifying Languit and the two regretted and wept the loss of thair grandchildren. Since they could not revive them, they gave to each body a light.

Thus the body of Bulan became the moon, Aldao became the sun, and the beautiful Bitoon became the stars in the heaven. But to Daga they did not give light and his body gave rise to the land on earth.

Tubigan then planted a seed which grew up into a bamboo tree. From one of its branches, came a man and a woman who became the first parents of the human race.

Three children were born to them. One called Maisog, invented a fish trap. One day he caught such a very big and grotesque looking whale that he thought it was a god. So he ordered his people to worship it. The people gathered around and began to pray; but so sooner had they begun when gods from the sky appeared and commanded Maisog to throw the whale to the water and worship no one but the gods. But Maisog was not afraid and defied the gods, Languit, the king of the sky, struck Maisog with a lightning and stunned him. Then he scattered the people over the earth as a punishment. In this way the earth was peopled.

Maisog's body was blackened by the lightning and all his descendants are black.

But Maisog's first son was carried to the north and became the parent of the white people.

His other children were brought to the south where the sun was hot that it scorched their bodies so that all their people were of brown color.

The other people were carried to the east where they had to feed on clay due to scarcity of food. Because of this diet, their descendants were of yellow color.

In this way the earth came into being.

The Story of Creation (Ifugao)

To the Ifuao’s, Mak-no-ngan was the greatest of all the gods. It was he, they believed, who created the earth and the place of the dead.

The place of the dead was divided into many sections. The most important of these sections were Lagud and Daya. Lagud was set aside for those who died of sickness. They were the most favored my Mak-no-ngan. Daya was set aside for those who died of violence. They remained restless and unhappy, until their deaths were avenged by their relatives.

After Mak-no-ngan created the earth, he made Uvigan in his image. Uvigan, then, was the first man. Mak-no-ngan gave him the entire earth to enjoy. But he remained unhappy just the same, because he was lonely.

Seeing this, Mak-no-ngan made Bugan, the first woman. Then he told Uvigan, “Take this woman and be happy with her.” And for many years the couple lived in innocence, happiness, and peace.

Now, on the earth, there grew a tree which was different from any other. From the very beginning, Mak-no-ngan had warned the couple against it. “Don’t eat its fruit,” he told them, “because it is evil. It will only make you unhappy.”

But Mak-no-ngan’s warning only made Bugan all the more curious about the tree – especially since it was beautiful and its fruit looked tempting. She tried hard to keep away from it, but she could not help herself. Again and again, almost against her will, her feet would lead her to it. And her mouth would water as she gazed at the ripe fruit.

Finally, Bugan could not contain herself any longer. One day, she went straight to the tree, plucked one of the fruit, and sank her teeth into it. It was good. She liked it so much that she was seized with a desire to share it with Uvigan.

And so she went to Uvigan, saying, “Here, Uvigan, taste this.”

Isn't that the fruit that Mak-no-ngan forbade us to eat? Uvigan wanted to know.

"Yes, and it's very good," said Bugan. "It tastes better than any other fruit I've eaten."

"But what will Mak-no-ngan say?" asked Uvigan.

"He doesn't need to know," said Bugan.

"He will, though," said Uvigan. "He's a god, and he has ways of finding out."

"Then why didn't he punish me the moment I plucked the fruit?" Bugan asked.

"Just the same, it's wrong and wicked of you to have plucked and eaten the fruit," Uvigan pointed out. "You should not have disobeyed Mak-no-ngan.

"Well," said Bugan, "I don't see, anyway, why he should have forbidden us to eat the fruit in the first place, unless he wants to save it for himself. But he can't possibly eat all of it. There's plenty and to spare."

"Perhaps you're right," agreed Uvigan. "Let me have a bite of the fruit."

Bugan gave it to him. He took a bite, and another, and another, as his eyes lighted with pleasure.

Nothing happened to Uvigan and Bugan right away. But little by little, they grew discontented and unhappy. And they began to quarrel with each other. For evil had entered their lives.

Uvigan and Bugan bore many children. But they were all unruly, disobedient, and troublesome. And after some years, Uvigan died in deep sorrow, leaving Bugan alone to run the household.

The children of Uvigan and Bugan grew more and more wicked, until Mak-no-ngan could no longer control his anger. To punish them, he caused the rice plants to wither and die; so that, in the end, they had nothing to eat.

Filled with pity for her hungry and suffering children, Bugan knelt on the ground and prayed that they might live. Then, with a great effort, she took hold of her breast and pressed them hard, until two streams of milk flowed to the ground.

Bugan's milk kept some of her children alive for a while, but, as it slowly ran out, she became more and more anxious about the welfare of her children. And she continued to press her breasts harder and harder, until blood flowed in torrents to the ground.

Seeing Bugan's sacrifice, Mak-no-ngan took pity on her and on her children. And so he made ihe rice plants grow once more. This time, however, some o£ the plants bore white grains; while the others bore red grains. The white grains were Bugan's milk, while the red grains were her blood.